USAS X3.4-1967 AKA US-ASCII

hex 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 a b c d e f
bin 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111
0 000 NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI
1 001 DLE XON DC2 XOFF DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US
2 010 SP ! " # $ % & ' ( ) * + , - . /
3 011 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ?
4 100 @ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
5 101 P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _
6 110 ` a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o
7 111 p q r s t u v w x y z { | } ~ DEL

USAS X3.4-1967 was published 1967-07-07; over fifty dang years ago!

(while a few characters were allowed multiple interpretations, it was the first version of the table we still use today: USAS X3.4-1968, ANSI X3.4-1977, and ANSI X3.4-1986 each updated the standard, but the table effectively remains the same.)

due to ASCII’s overwhelming success, these are also the first 128 codepoints of many subsequent encodings, including three of the most popular:

UTF-8, a variable-width encoding, just the absolute best, your friend & mine; the only encoding you should ever use

ISO 8859-1, an 8-bit encoding that was fine for its time

Windows-1252, a Microsoft tweak of the former, replacing some of the never-used C1 control codes with then-needed printable characters

(the last two are oft conflated: when someone says the former, they almost certainly mean the latter; some modern standards canonise this.)

UTF-16 (or, so help me, UCS-2) is a garbage encoding for garbage people.

more information about character sets can be found at j teaches you: binary, eventually, maybe, you know, sometime.